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Revision as of 07:45, 8 August 2021 by Superogue (talk | contribs) (Introduction)

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For X86 related information, please check the main pages on this website, as a lot of the same tricks will also work with X86 linux sizecoding. This page goes into the specifics of getting actual small binaries on linux using assembler.

While there have been attempts in getting tiny intros to work using self-compilation tricks (using gcc or python hacks), development of actual tiny ELF executables on linux is still in its early days.

So a huge thanks goes out to byteobserver as well as frag/fsqrt for all their research and hard work in producing tiny ELF binaries for linux.

Linux system

This section of the wiki targets 32-bit X86 based Linux binaries (ELF format).

Setting up

Setting up your development platform for Linux development:

  • Suggested Distributions : Any X86-based Linux distribution that allows for execution of 32-bit executables.
  • Assembler: NASM (or any other linux compatible 32-bit X86 assembler)

Furthermore, it is important that the user has access to the dev/fbo framebuffer. This can be achieved by launching a virtual (fullscreen) console using CTRL-F3/F4 in most distributions, login and making sure the user has access to the video group. If this is not the case for some reason, you can add your user to the videogroup like so:

sudo usermod -a -G video username

ELF Header Information

Like a 32-bit windows executable, a 32-bit binary for linux comes with a pretty hefty ELF header.

  org     0x00010000  
  ehdr:                                                 ; Elf32_Ehdr
                db      0x7F, "ELF", 1, 1, 1, 0         ;   e_ident
        times 8 db      0
                dw      2                               ;   e_type
                dw      3                               ;   e_machine
                dd      1                               ;   e_version
                dd      _start                          ;   e_entry
                dd      phdr - $$                       ;   e_phoff
                dd      0                               ;   e_shoff
                dd      0                               ;   e_flags
                dw      ehdrsize                        ;   e_ehsize
                dw      phdrsize                        ;   e_phentsize
                dw      1                               ;   e_phnum
                dw      0                               ;   e_shentsize
                dw      0                               ;   e_shnum
                dw      0                               ;   e_shstrndx
  phdr:                                                 ; Elf32_Phdr
                dd      1                               ;   p_type
                dd      0                               ;   p_offset
                dd      $$                              ;   p_vaddr
                dd      $$                              ;   p_paddr
                dd      filesize                        ;   p_filesz
                dd      filesize                        ;   p_memsz
                dd      5                               ;   p_flags
                dd      0x1000                          ;   p_align
  ; your program here

Luckily some parts of the ELF header can be repurposed and used to store some data and code. There is quite an extensive journey about some header optimisations available at for those that are interested, but eventually you can get the header down to about the 30 bytes range with a nifty /dev/fb0 string inserted which we'll be able to use later for setting up the framebuffer.

org $00010000
    db $7F,"ELF"    ; e_ident
    dd 1            ; p_type
    dd 0            ; p_offset
    dd $$           ; p_vaddr
    dw 2            ; e_type, p_paddr
    dw 3            ; e_machine
    dd entry        ; e_version, p_filesz
    dd entry        ; e_entry, p_memsz
    dd 4            ; e_phoff, p_flags
    db "/dev/fb0",0 ; e_shoff, p_align, e_flags, e_ehsize
    ; this next instruction overlaps with a critical part of the elf header
    ; it needs to look like XX YY YY YY YY where YYYYYYYY=fname
    ; so you can change the register to something else or use push
    ; but the four byte pointer to fname cannot be changed.
    mov ebx,fname   ; e_phentsize, e_phnum

    ; e_shentsize, e_shnum, e_shstrndx are below but we can put whatever code/bytes we want there
    mov cl,1 ; set read/write mode (1 or inc ecx is sufficient for pcopy method, read/write (3) is needed for mmap)
    mov al,5 ; 5 = open syscall
    int 0x80 ; open /dev/fb0 = 3

System Calls

Interaction with the Linux OS is mostly done via int 0x80 system calls. This usually includes dealing with opening files/framebuffer/audio and handling timers.

A full list of system calls and their expected register arguments is available at:

Accessing video

Accessing video

Getting something on screen

To be added soon.


It is possible to output digital audio by binding the the aplay command into your intro. APLAY is available on most of the Linux distributions and can be tested by running:

   $ aplay -c8 /dev/urandom

Make some noise

To be added soon.

Additional Resources