- 1 Introduction
- 2 Displaying Graphics
- 3 Example Framework
- 4 Adding Sound
- 5 Larger productions (1k and 4k intros)
This section of the sizecoding.org wiki is about creating very small (<=256byte) 32-bit X86 based Linux binaries (ELF format). For X86 related information, please check the main pages on this website, as a lot of the same tricks will also work with X86 Linux sizecoding.
A huge thanks goes out to byteobserver (Xorchitecture (2021) - https://www.pouet.net/prod.php?which=88982) as well as some early work by frag/fsqrt (Lintro (2012) - https://www.pouet.net/prod.php?which=58560) for all their research and hard work in producing tiny ELF binaries for linux.
Alternative methods and expectations
As the development of actual tiny ELF assembler executables on linux is still in its early days, with about 3 or so actual <256 byte tiny ELF binary productions, lets look at some of the other methods of getting tiny intros onto linux.
1) Self-compilation tricks (using gcc or python): The executable executes a gcc (or python) compilation of the embedded code and executes it. This requires GCC and/or specific version of Python and potentially dynamically linked libraries to be installed.
2) Linking a piece of compiled C code to a stripped ELF header + dev/fb0 setup: This method has been used by The Orz to create several sizecoded procedural graphics entries. For more information about this check out https://github.com/grz0zrg/tinycelfgraphics
So what can we realistically expect from a 256 intro on Linux?
Expect about ~100 byte cost for the ELF header, setting up fb0 , some form of update loop, framecounter and using either mmap setup or copying via pwrite64 to get you started. If you want audio as well, the avaialble byte-budget will shrink even more.
Lets hope this wiki page will inspire and help people to get started and create newer, better Linux tiny intros ;-)
Setting up your development platform for Linux development:
- Suggested Distributions : Any X86-based Linux distribution that allows for execution of 32-bit executables.
- Assembler: NASM (or any other linux compatible 32-bit X86 assembler)
Furthermore, it is important that the user has access to the dev/fbo framebuffer. This can be achieved by launching a virtual (fullscreen) console using CTRL-F3/F4 in most distributions, login and making sure the user has access to the video group. If this is not the case for some reason, you can add your user to the videogroup like so:
sudo usermod -a -G video username
Note: Make sure your binary is executable for everyone using the chmod 777 command after compilation :D
Interaction with the Linux OS is mostly done via int 0x80 system calls. This usually includes dealing with opening files/framebuffer/audio and handling timers.
A full list of system calls and their expected register arguments is available at: https://syscalls32.paolostivanin.com/
ELF Header Information
Like a 32-bit windows executable, a 32-bit binary for linux comes with a pretty hefty ELF header.
org 0x00010000 ehdr: ; Elf32_Ehdr db 0x7F, "ELF", 1, 1, 1, 0 ; e_ident times 8 db 0 dw 2 ; e_type dw 3 ; e_machine dd 1 ; e_version dd _start ; e_entry dd phdr - $$ ; e_phoff dd 0 ; e_shoff dd 0 ; e_flags dw ehdrsize ; e_ehsize dw phdrsize ; e_phentsize dw 1 ; e_phnum dw 0 ; e_shentsize dw 0 ; e_shnum dw 0 ; e_shstrndx phdr: ; Elf32_Phdr dd 1 ; p_type dd 0 ; p_offset dd $$ ; p_vaddr dd $$ ; p_paddr dd filesize ; p_filesz dd filesize ; p_memsz dd 5 ; p_flags dd 0x1000 ; p_align _start: ; your program here
Luckily some parts of the ELF header can be repurposed and used to store some data and code. There is quite an extensive journey about some header optimisations available at http://www.muppetlabs.com/~breadbox/software/tiny/teensy.html for those that are interested.
After merging the ehr and phr parts and changing your entry point, we can get the header down to about the 30 bytes range with a nifty /dev/fb0 string inserted which we'll be able to use later for setting up the framebuffer.
org $00010000 db $7F,"ELF" ; e_ident dd 1 ; p_type dd 0 ; p_offset dd $$ ; p_vaddr dw 2 ; e_type, p_paddr dw 3 ; e_machine dd entry ; e_version, p_filesz dd entry ; e_entry, p_memsz dd 4 ; e_phoff, p_flags fname: db "/dev/fb0",0 ; e_shoff, p_align, e_flags, e_ehsize entry: ; this next instruction overlaps with a critical part of the elf header ; it needs to look like XX YY YY YY YY where YYYYYYYY=fname ; so you can change the register to something else or use push ; but the four byte pointer to fname cannot be changed. mov ebx,fname ; e_phentsize, e_phnum ; e_shentsize, e_shnum, e_shstrndx are below but we can put whatever code/bytes we want there mov cl,1 ; set read/write mode (1 or inc ecx is sufficient for pcopy method, read/write (3) is needed for mmap) mov al,5 ; 5 = open syscall int 0x80 ; open /dev/fb0 = 3
Graphics can be produced by using and accessing the linux /dev/fb0 framebuffer. First the framebuffer has to be opened at the intro initialisation, and can then be used to either copy a piece of memory over using the pwrite64 syscall (0xb5) or using map a piece of memory directly to the framebuffer using syscall mmap (90)
Setting up the framebuffer
The dev/fb0 framebuffer can best be accessed from a virtual console (ctrl-f3/f4 in most distributions).
To make sure your dev/fb0 framebuffer is set up properly, you can apt get the fbset tool and display and/or alter the framebuffer resolution as most intros will make an assumption about the resolution of your framebuffer.
To test access to dev/fb0 framebuffer, you can use the following cat command: <syntax highlighting> cat /dev/urandom > /dev/fb0 </syntax highlighting> which should produce random noise to the screen (ignorning the out of memory error that is expected from cat)
Alternatively, if you don't like to use the virtual console during the development of your intro, or the framebuffer setup is somehow giving you problems, there is a smalle fbe.c / fbe binary supplied with the xorchitecture intro by byteobserver that has a SDL windows mmap'ed to tmp/fb0 which you can launch alongside your intro (don't forget to redirect the dev/fb0 pointer in your intro to tmp/fb0).
Getting something on screen
First we need to fill up our local memorybuffer with pixeldata, so lets start doing that using the old AND pattern
mov ecx,width*height setpixels: mov ebx,width mov eax,ecx cdq div ebx ; edx = x-coord , eax=y coord and eax,edx ; xor pattern mov [esp+ecx*4+0],al ; b mov [esp+ecx*4+1],al ; g mov [esp+ecx*4+2],al ; r loop setpixels
Once your buffer (in this case marked by the esp stackpointer) is all filled up with pixeldata, you can copy it to the /dev/fb0 using the pwrite64 syscall like so:
; copy memorybuffer to screen (/dev/fb0) using the pwrite64 syscall mov ecx,esp ; buffer ptr mov edx,ebp ; screen size xor esi,esi ; seek to beginning of screen xor edi,edi mov ebx,3 ; fd of framebuffer mov eax,0xb5 ; pwrite64 int 0x80 ; pwrite64 to framebuffer
As an alternative to using pwrite64 you can also mmap )check out intros by The Orz for an example with mmap) to map a piece of memory to dev/fb0. However using mmap because you can get tearing, and you can't realistically do feedback effects without implementing a second buffer, as reading from the mmaped memory is VERY slow.
;mmap(NULL, buflen, PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0); push edx ;edx = 0 push eax ;fd push byte 1 ;MAP_SHARED mov al, 90 push eax ;we need to set second bit for PROT_WRITE, 90 = 01011010 and setting PROT_WRITE automatically set PROT_READ push width*height*4 ;buffer size push edx ;NULL mov ebx, esp ;args pointer int 80h ;eax <- buffer pointer
So when we put all the above together, we can get a minimal kind of framework running that will look something like this munching square example provided to us by byteobserver:
; byte.observer's munching square linux example ; assembles with nasm -fbin munch.asm -o munch width equ 1024 height equ 768 bits 32 org $00010000 db $7F,"ELF" ; e_ident dd 1 ; p_type dd 0 ; p_offset dd $$ ; p_vaddr dw 2 ; e_type, p_paddr dw 3 ; e_machine dd entry ; e_version, p_filesz dd entry ; e_entry, p_memsz dd 4 ; e_phoff, p_flags fname: db "/dev/fb0",0 ; e_shoff, p_align, e_flags, e_ehsize entry: mov ebx,fname ; e_phentsize, e_phnum inc ecx ; = 1 = O_WRONLY mov al,5 ; 5 = open syscall int 0x80 ; open /dev/fb0 = 3 mov ebp,width*height*4 ; ebp = screen size sub esp,ebp ; make room on the stack for the video memory mainloop: mov ecx,ebp ; init pixel index shr ecx,2 ; divide by bits per pixel inc edi ; frame counter setpixels: mov ebx,width mov eax,ecx cdq div ebx ; edx = x-coord , eax=y coord xor eax,edx ; xor pattern add eax,edi ; make it munch mov [esp+ecx*4+0],al ; b mov [esp+ecx*4+1],al ; g mov [esp+ecx*4+2],al ; r mov [esp+ecx*4+3],al ; a loop setpixels ; dump the whole thing to the screen using pwrite64 syscall mov ecx,esp ; buffer ptr mov edx,ebp ; screen size push edi ; save frame counter xor esi,esi ; seek to beginning of screen xor edi,edi mov ebx,3 ; fd of framebuffer mov eax,0xb5 ; pwrite64 int 0x80 ; pwrite64 to framebuffer pop edi jmp mainloop
It is possible to output digital audio by binding the the aplay command into your intro. APLAY is available on most of the Linux distributions and can be tested by running:
$ aplay -c8 /dev/urandom
Make some noise
To be added soon.
- Pouet: 256byte productions on Linux
- Pouet: 128byte productions on Linux
-  A dev/fb0 framebuffer binding + ELF header for small C programs.
- A Whirlwind Tutorial on Creating Really Teensy ELF Executables for Linux
Larger productions (1k and 4k intros)
Creating 1k and 4k intros on linux usually requires a different setup, for more information on this check out the following links: