6502 based CPUs

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Introduction

Wanting to start sizecoding on a 6502 platform in this day and age can be tough.

6502.jpg

So here is a bit of help to get you started:

The 6502 processor

The 6502 processor can be seen as the 8bit micro ARM chip. It has only has 3 registers (Accumilator, IX and IY registers) and only a handful of instructions to work with.

Adressing modes

To be added.

Zero page

When using the 6502 for sizecoding, you'll mostly be working from zeropage

Atari 8bit family

The Atari XE/XL systems consists of the 6502 with custom hardware for graphics and sound.

Setting up

Setting up your development platform for the Atari 8bit systems is quite easy, first get the following tools:

  • Assembler: MADS Assembler - This assembler has nice macros for creating Binaries and SNA snapshot files out of the box. You can download it at https://mads.atari8.info/
  • Emulator(s): I Found Altirra to work best for my usecase. Make sure to use the original Rev2 rom for best compatibility.

Special Memory Adresses

  • FRAMECOUNTER_HIGH = 19
  • FRAMECOUNTER_LOW = 20

Video display

Video display on the Atari 8bit systems use the TIA chip, it has the following video modes:

To be added soon.

Getting something on screen

;fill screen with charset,(88,89)=an address
 org $600; free 6th page:600-6ff
 ldy #0
fl: tya
 sta(88),y
 iny
 bne fl
 jmp *

To be added soon.

SDMCTL	= $022f
HPOSP0  = $d000
SIZEP0  = $d008
GRAFP0  = $d00d
COLPM0  = $d012

FRAMECOUNTER_HIGH = 19
FRAMECOUNTER = 20
WSYNC	= $d40a
VCOUNT	= $d40b

sinewave	= $0600		; to $06ff

		org $80

main	
	; disable all graphics/colors
	ldx #0
	stx SDMCTL	

	ldy #$7f
	sty SIZEP0	; size p0=127
		
	ldx #0
	ldy #$3f
make_sine:
value_lo
			lda #0
			clc
delta_lo
			adc #0
			sta value_lo+1
value_hi
			lda #0
delta_hi
			adc #0
			sta value_hi+1
 
			sta sinewave+$c0,x
			sta sinewave+$80,y
			eor #$7f
			sta sinewave+$40,x
			sta sinewave+$00,y
 
			lda delta_lo+1
			adc #8
			sta delta_lo+1
			bcc nothing
			inc delta_hi+1
nothing
			inx
			dey
			bpl make_sine

updateloop:
		; vblank
		lda VCOUNT
		bne updateloop

		; clear graphics
		sta HPOSP0
		sta GRAFP0

		ldy #0
		lda #47
		sta COLPM0
yloop:
		tya           ; graphics shape = y
		sta WSYNC
		sta GRAFP0

		; a = sin(frame+y)+48
		tya	
		adc FRAMECOUNTER
		tax
		lda sinewave,x
		adc #48
		sta HPOSP0
                
                iny
                bne yloop
		jmp updateloop

		run main

Sound

The Atari 8bit systems use the Pokey chip to generate sound. To be added soon.

Make some noise

To be added soon.


Additional Resources

Sizecoding resource for the Atari 8bit are sparse

Commodore 64

The Commodore systems consists of the 6502 with custom hardware for graphics and sound.

Setting up

Setting up your development platform for the Commodore systems is quite easy, first get the following tools:

  • Assembler: To be added
  • Emulator(s): VICE is the way to go

Autoboot

*=$0326
        .word start              
        .byte $ed,$f6
start
; rest of code

Will give you autoboot and more space directly. (though writing through to $0400 will load it onto the screen unless you move the pointers)

Video display

Video display on the Commodore, it has the following video modes:

To be added soon.

Getting something on screen

To be added soon.


Sound

The Commodore 64 uses the famous SID chip to generate sound. To be added soon.

Make some noise

To be added soon.

Additional Resources

  • links to be added


Apple II

The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. It was designed primarily by Steve Wozniak.

Setting up

Compilation can be done as follows (master.dsk can be found with applewin)

acme hl.asm
java -jar AppleCommander-1.3.5.jar -d master.dsk hl
java -jar AppleCommander-1.3.5.jar -p master.dsk hl B 24576 < hl.bin

Memory Map

   0-255	 $0-$FF     ZERO-PAGE SYSTEM STORAGE
  256-511      $100-$1FF    SYSTEM STACK
  512-767      $200-$2FF    KEYBOARD CHARACTER BUFFER
  768-975      $300-$3CF    OFTEN AVAILABLE AS FREE SPACE FOR USER PROGRAMS
  976-1023     $3D0-3FF     SYSTEM VECTORS
 1024-2047     $400-$7FF    TEXT AND LO-RES GRAPHICS PAGE 1 <--- !!!
 2048-LOMEM    $800-LOMEM   PROGRAM STORAGE
 2048-3071     $800-$BFF    TEXT AND LO-RES GRAPHICS PAGE 2 OR FREE SPACE
 3072-8191     $C00-$1FFF   FREE SPACE UNLESS RAM APPLESOFT IS IN USE
 8192-16383   $2000-$3FFF   HI-RES PAGE 1 OR FREE SPACE <--- !!!
16384-24575   $4000-$5FFF   HI-RES PAGE 2 OR FREE SPACE
24576-38999   $6000-$95FF   FREE SPACE AND STRING STORAGE
38400-49151   $9600-$BFFF   DOS
49152-53247   $C000-$CFFF   I/O HARDWARE (RESERVED)
53248-57343   $D000-$DFFF   APPLESOFT IN LANGUAGE CARD OR ROM
57344-63487   $E000-$F7FF   APPLESOFT OR INTEGER BASIC IN LANGUAGE CARD OR ROM
63488-65535   $F800-$FFFF   SYSTEM MONITOR

Display

Graphics Modes

Text Mode 40x24, for Apple IIe available 80x25 - use PR#3 for switch mode, or hardware switch
LowRes 40x48, 16 colors: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_II_graphics
Hires mode 280x192,6 colors: https://www.xtof.info/blog/?p=768

https://mrob.com/pub/xapple2/colors.html https://archive.org/details/HiRes_Color_Graphics_on_the_Apple_II_Computer_by_Wozniak

However for sizecoding, you almost never want to do direct-access to graphics for Apple II in size-coding because the Apple II graphics modes are horrible. The only fast way to do things is with large lookup tables. To do hires you need to divide by 7 which as you can imagine is a bit difficult to do compactly on 6502. Double-hires is even crazier on top of that. Deater did manage a color-bar style effect in double-hires in 128B but that was doing some crazy tricks with the firmware BASIC routines, definitely not direct-access.

Lores and Hires can be mixed modes and full-graphics The screen structure is called memory holes(https://retrocomputing.stackexchange.com/questions/2534/what-are-the-screen-holes-in-apple-ii-graphics). The GBASCALC($F847) procedure is used to calculate the address of the horizontal line : IN:reg.A=Y, out : GBASL/GBASH($26/$27)=address. See also https://www.callapple.org/uncategorized/use-of-apple-ii-color-graphics-in-assembly-language/

Getting something on screen

Here is an example of a XOR texture, created by g0blinish

 *=$6000
 !to "HL.bin", plain	; set output file and format
 !cpu 6502		; set processor type

GBASL	=	$26
GBASH	=	$27
SETGR    =     $FB40 ; setup LoRes
GBASCALC = $F847 ; calc Address

CLRTEXT =  $C050 ;display graphics 
SETTEXT =  $C051 ;display text 

CLRMIXED = $C052 ;clear mixed mode- enable full graphics 
SETMIXED = $C053 ;enable graphics/text mixed mode 

PAGE1 =    $C054 ;select text/graphics page1 
PAGE2 =    $C055 ;select text/graphics page2 

CLRHIRES = $C056 ;select Lo-res 
SETHIRES = $C057 ;select Hi-res 

TMP= $FA

	JSR   SETGR      ;GR
	BIT CLRMIXED ; full screen

	LDA #0 ; A=0
	STA TMP ; POKE $FA,A

YLP ;
	LDA TMP ; A=PEEK($FA)
;	LSR ; A=A/2
	JSR GBASCALC
	LDY #0;Y=0

XLP TYA ; A=Y
	EOR TMP ; A=A xor PEEK($FA)
	and #$0F ; A=A and 15
	TAX ; X=A
	LDA COLORS,X ;A=PEEK(COLORS+X)
	STA(GBASL),Y ; POKE PEEK($26)+256*PEEK($27)+Y,A
	INY ; Y=Y+1
	CPY #40 ; Y=40?
	BNE XLP
	INC TMP ; POKE $FA,PEEK($FA)+1
	LDA TMP ; A=PEEK($FA)
	CMP #24 ; A=24?
	BNE YLP
	
M1 JMP M1 ; replace to RTS

COLORS ;N*17, pixel format is AAAABBBB, AAAA - upper dot, BBBB - lower dot
!byte $00,$11,$22,$33,$44,$55,$66,$77
!byte $88,$99,$AA,$BB,$CC,$DD,$EE,$FF

Sound

Here is an example for using the speaker, based onthe following basic program:

; 50  POKE 768,V: POKE 769,P - 255 *  INT (P / 256): POKE 800,1 + P / 256
; 60  CALL 770: RETURN 
; 95  FOR K = 1 TO N: READ V(K),P(K): NEXT K
; 100  FOR K = 1 TO N:V = V(K):P = P(K)
; 110  GOSUB 50
;!byte 173,48,192,136,208,5,206,1,3,240,9,202,208,245,174,0,3,76,2,3,206,32,3,208,240,96
 *=$6000
 !to "HL.bin", plain	; set output file and format
 !cpu 6502		; set processor type

;start
; 95  FOR K = 1 TO N: READ V(K),P(K): NEXT K
; 100  FOR K = 1 TO N:V = V(K):P = P(K)
ini:
	lda #70
	sta cnt+1
	lda #music&255
	sta gotbyte+1
	lda #music/256
	sta gotbyte+2

lop:
;V
	jsr gotbyte
	sta L300
	jsr gotbyte
;P
	jsr gotbyte
	sta L301
	jsr gotbyte
	clc
	adc #1
	sta L320
	jsr beep
	
	dec cnt+1
cnt lda #70
	bne lop
; 110  GOSUB 50
; 50  POKE 768,V: POKE 769,P - 255 *  INT (P / 256): POKE 800,1 + P / 256
; 60  CALL 770: RETURN 
	jmp ini
gotbyte
	lda music
	inc gotbyte+1
	bne noinch
	inc gotbyte+2
noinch
	rts
;!byte 173,48,192,136,208,5,206,1,3,240,9,202,208,245,174,0,3,76,2,3,206,32,3,208,240,96
beep:
	ldy #1
	ldx #1
loc_302:
		LDA	$C030

loc_305:
		DEY
		BNE	loc_30D
		DEC	L301
loc_30B:
		BEQ	loc_316

loc_30D:
		DEX
		BNE	loc_305
		LDX	L300
		JMP	loc_302
loc_316:
		DEC	L320
		BNE	loc_30B
		RTS
L301 !byte 0
L300 !byte 0
L320 !byte 0
music
 !word 76,192,85,64,96,64,102,64,114,128,114,64,96,64,102,64,114,64,128,64
 !word 114,64,152,64,171,64,152,512,76,192,85,64,96,64,102,64,114,128,114,64
 !word 96,64,102,64,114,64,128,64,114,64,152,64,171,64,152,512,85,64,85,64
 !word 85,64,96,64,144,128,144,64,128,64,76,128,85,64,96,64,144,128,114,64
 !word 96,64,102,128,114,64,128,64,128,128,114,64,128,64,114,512,85,64,85,64
 !word 85,64,96,64,144,128,144,64,128,64,76,128,85,64,96,64,144,128,114,64
 !word 96,64,102,128,114,64,128,64,128,64,128,128,96,64,85,64,96,64,102,64,114,64,114,64

Additional Resources

Atari Lynx

The Atari Lynx consists of the 6502 with custom hardware for graphics and sound.

Setting up

Setting up your development platform for the Atari Lynx:

  • Assembler: -
  • Emulator(s): -

Video display

To be added soon.

Getting something on screen

To be added soon.


Sound

To be added soon.

Make some noise

To be added soon.

Additional Resources

Sizecoding resource for the Atari Lynx are sparse

  • 42Bastian's website (link to be added)