Getting Started

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Words of warning

Sizecoding assumes a basic level of assembler knowledge. You should have at least a few regular (non-optimized) assembler programs under your belt before you attempt sizecoding. Also, don't assume sizecoding is normal -- shaving bytes is a black art that should be kept far, far away from normal programming targets. People sizecode for fun, not profit!

Tools and Workflows

Most people use NASM (it's free) and DOSBox for testing. A simple workflow:

nasm main.asm -fbin -o
ndisasm -o100h

Some crazy sizecoders like writing tinyprogs on very old hardware. For that, a86 is a good choice for an assembler, as it assembles source directly to a .COM file in one pass. Even on the first 8086 systems, you can use to check the assembly and size:

a86 main.asm

Know your environment

A simple graphics mode

Most sizecoders choose to write to mode 13h, a chunky 320x200 graphics mode located at segment A000:0000. Each byte is a pixel, and the graphics buffer is linear, so it is extremely easy to program for. Because it is contained to a single segment, you can be sloppy, as overwriting or underwriting the offset value won't damage anything. The default palette leaves a little to be desired, so if you have room, you may want to change it.

.COM file defaults

Knowing what register values are initialized at program start can save you the trouble of having to set them in your code. On most (but not all) DOS environments, the following registers have these default values:

DX=Same as CS register
SP=FFFC (DOS child process) or FFFE (the default)

Because .COM files only support 64K executables, DS, ES, and SS are all set to the same value as CS. The rest can't be counted on for any specific value, except that BP is mostly 09??h so you can usually count on the high byte being 09h.

Usually, the top stack contains 0000h. That allows for using the one byte instruction RET to exit your program, since at location CS:0000h there is the value 20CDh (= int 20h). See Program Segment Prefix.

Boot sector defaults

Boot sector tinyprogs are occasionally explored, but The BIOS changes every register value as it executes before the boot sequence, so there's not much to count on other than what occurs directly before execution of the boot sector:

  • The boot sector is loaded at 0000:7C00
  • DL holds the drive number that was booted from, so if booted from a floppy disk in drive A:, it will be 00
  • The stack pointer is 512 bytes beyond the end of the boot sector, so SP is likely 7E00h

This is why most sizecoders target .COM files, and is also why Toledo Atomchess is 9 bytes larger if loaded from boot sector than from a .COM file -- it has to spend bytes setting things up like a .COM file for the rest of the code to work.

If you still want to target boot sectors, your reward is 510 bytes available for program code (the last two bytes must be 0x55, 0xAA to be recognized as a boot sector).

1-byte opcodes

The 80x86 family was originally a CISC design, a design philosophy that attempts to create instructions that perform multiple steps. As such, there are some single instructions that perform complex actions, such as the string opcodes (LODS, MOVS, CMPS, and SCAS). In sizecoding, you are trying to perform as much work in as little space as possible, so it is helpful to know (or memorize!) every 1-byte instruction in the 80x86 family. Here's a handy chart (segments and prefixes omitted):

Opcode Mnemonic Arch Description Notes
37 AAA ASCII adjust AL (carry into AH) after addition
3F AAS ASCII adjust AL (borrow from AH) after subtraction
98 CBW Convert byte into word (AH = top bit of AL)
99 CDQ 80386+ Convert dword to qword (EDX = top bit of EAX)
F8 CLC Clear carry flag
FC CLD Clear direction flag so SI and DI will increment
FA CLI Clear interrupt enable flag; interrupts disabled
F5 CMC Complement carry flag
A6 CMPS mb,mb Compare bytes [SI] - ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A7 CMPS mv,mv Compare words [SI] - ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A6 CMPSB Compare bytes DS:[SI] - ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A7 CMPSD 80386+ Compare dwords DS:[SI] - ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A7 CMPSW Compare words DS:[SI] - ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
99 CWD Convert word to doubleword (DX = top bit of AX)
98 CWDE 80386+ Sign-extend word AX to doubleword EAX
27 DAA Decimal adjust AL after addition
2F DAS Decimal adjust AL after subtraction
F4 HLT Halt Resumes operation if an interrupt occurs; could use this for pacing effects that run too fast
EC IN AL,DX Input byte from port DX into AL
ED IN eAX,DX Input word from port DX into eAX
6C INS rmb,DX 80186+ Input byte from port DX into [DI], advance DI
6D INS rmv,DX 80186+ Input word from port DX into [DI], advance DI
6C INSB 80186+ Input byte from port DX into ES:[DI], advance DI
6D INSD 80386+ Input dword from port DX into ES:[DI], advance DI
6D INSW 80186+ Input word from port DX into ES:[DI], advance DI
CC INT 3 Interrupt 3 (trap to debugger) If performing very many CALLs to a single procedure, could make it INT 3
CE INTO Interrupt 4 if overflow flag is 1
CF IRET Interrupt return (far return and pop flags)
CF IRETD 80386+ Interrupt return (pop EIP, ECS, Eflags)
9F LAHF Load: AH = flags SF ZF xx AF xx PF xx CF
C9 LEAVE 80186+ Set SP to BP, then POP BP (reverses previous ENTER)
AC LODS mb Load byte [SI] into AL, advance SI
AD LODS mv Load word [SI] into eAX, advance SI
AC LODSB Load byte [SI] into AL, advance SI
AD LODSD 80386+ Load dword [SI] into EAX, advance SI
AD LODSW Load word [SI] into AX, advance SI
A4 MOVS mb,mb Move byte [SI] to ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A5 MOVS mv,mv Move word [SI] to ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A4 MOVSB Move byte DS:[SI] to ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A5 MOVSD 80386+ Move dword DS:[SI] to ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
A5 MOVSW Move word DS:[SI] to ES:[DI], advance SI,DI
90 NOP No Operation
EE OUT DX,AL Output byte AL to port number DX
EF OUT DX,eAX Output word eAX to port number DX
6E OUTS DX,rmb 80186+ Output byte [SI] to port number DX, advance SI
6F OUTS DX,rmv 80186+ Output word [SI] to port number DX, advance SI
6E OUTSB 80186+ Output byte DS:[SI] to port number DX, advance SI
6F OUTSD 80386+ Output dword DS:[SI] to port number DX, advance SI
6F OUTSW 80186+ Output word DS:[SI] to port number DX, advance SI
1F POP DS Set DS to top of stack, increment SP by 2
07 POP ES Set ES to top of stack, increment SP by 2
17 POP SS Set SS to top of stack, increment SP by 2
61 POPA 80186+ Pop DI,SI,BP,x ,BX,DX,CX,AX (SP value is ignored)
61 POPAD 80386+ Pop EDI,ESI,EBP,x,EBX,EDX,ECX,EAX (ESP ign.)
9D POPF Set flags register to top of stack, increment SP by 2
9D POPFD 80386+ Set eflags reg to top of stack, incr SP by 2
0E PUSH CS Set [SP-2] to CS, then decrement SP by 2
1E PUSH DS Set [SP-2] to DS, then decrement SP by 2
06 PUSH ES Set [SP-2] to ES, then decrement SP by 2
16 PUSH SS Set [SP-2] to SS, then decrement SP by 2
60 PUSHA 80186+ Push AX,CX,DX,BX,original SP,BP,SI,DI
60 PUSHAD 80386+ Push EAX,ECX,EDX,EBX,original ESP,EBP,ESI,EDI
9C PUSHF Set [SP-2] to flags register, then decrement SP by 2
9C PUSHFD 80386+ Set [SP-4] to eflags reg, then decr SP by 4
C3 RET Return to caller (near or far, depending on PROC)
CB RETF Return to far caller (pop offset, then seg)
C3 RETN Return to near caller (pop offset only)
9E SAHF Store AH into flags SF ZF xx AF xx PF xx CF
AE SCAS mb Compare bytes AL - ES:[DI], advance DI
AF SCAS mv Compare words eAX - ES:[DI], advance DI
AE SCASB Compare bytes AL - ES:[DI], advance DI
AF SCASD 80386+ Compare dwords EAX - ES:[DI], advance DI
AF SCASW Compare words AX - ES:[DI], advance DI
36 SS Use SS segment for the following memory reference
F9 STC Set carry flag
FD STD Set direction flag so SI and DI will decrement
FB STI Set interrupt enable flag, interrupts enabled
AA STOS mb Store AL to byte [DI], advance DI
AB STOS mv Store eAX to word [DI], advance DI
AA STOSB Store AL to byte ES:[DI], advance DI
AB STOSD 80386+ Store EAX to dword ES:[DI], advance DI
AB STOSW Store AX to word ES:[DI], advance DI
9B WAIT Wait until floating-point operation is completed
D7 XLAT Set AL to memory byte DS:[BX + unsigned AL]

Additionally, there are accumulator-optimized (AX) forms of opcodes that are one byte, such as DEC AX, INC AX, and XCHG reg,AX.

A sample framework

Want to just dive in and see what happens? Here's a skeleton that sets up Mode 13h, loops until a keypress is detected, then exits. Although it assembles to only 19 bytes, do not consider this fully and finally optimized; your program's structure may allow some of this to be reduced further. But it's a good place to start:

org 100h                        ;specify .COM file

        mov     al,13h          ;AX=0000 at program start
        int     10h             ;init mode 13h
        push    word 0A000h     ;Requires 80186 or higher to PUSH IMMED
        pop     es              ;ES now points to mode 13h screen segment
;This is where you do your mega-amazing tiny program.
;Write 8-bit values to A000:0000 to draw some pixels.

        ;Check for user wanting to leave by pressing ESC
        in      al,60h          ;read whatever is at keyboard port; looking for ESC which is #1
        dec     al              ;if ESC, AL now 0
        jnz     mainloop        ;fall through if 0, jump otherwise
        mov     al,03           ;AX=0000 due to mainloop exit condition
        int     10h             ;Switch back to text mode as a convenience
        ret                     ;.COM files can exit with RET

Where to go from here?

Hello World! console output shows how to output text.

Tips, Tricks, and Techniques can help you with ideas on optimizing your next production, or help you design while you're writing it.

Some Case Studies are provided that illustrate and explain some of the choices made when sizecoding.

Can't find what you need? Check our list of external resources.